“Coaching is a way of facilitating self-directed neuroplasticity.”

— Jeffrey Schwartz, Neuroscientist —

As cited in Coaching with the Brain in Mind by David Rock and Linda J Page (2009)


Brain-based coaching is all about helping individuals and teams to achieve their goals by improving the quality of thinking through a brain-friendly, structured process that facilitates quality and quantity attention.

The Results Coaching System was developed by David Rock, founder of the NeuroLeadership Institute and is based, at its heart, on contemporary neuroscience, making it a brain-based coaching approach.

A typical individual coaching engagement is done over 12 weekly sessions of between 1 – 1½ hours face-to-face or telephonically. This can be stretched 12 sessions over a maximum of 6-months. Team coaching engagements are designed based on the team's needs.

Six insights into the brain help explain how and why brain-based coaching is so effective and are incorporated into the principles of results coaching (on the right):

The brain is a connection machine

The brain creates millions of new connections every second and it loves to do so. Neurotransmitters such as adrenaline and dopamine are released during this process which makes us want to take action. When we can't make a connection, we feel stuck — we can't think our way out of a problem. Brain-based coaching helps people resolve these impasses for themselves by helping to improve the quality of thinking. When people make quality new connections for themselves, it generates energy and excitement to take committed action.

Up close, no two brains are alike

To use neuroscientist David Eagleman's (The Brain, The Story of You) expression, "brains are like snowflakes":

"Each of us is on our own trajectory — steered by our genes and our experiences — and as a result every brain has a different internal life. Brains are as unique as snowflakes. As your trillions of new connections continually form and re-form, the distinctive pattern means that no one like you has ever existed, or will ever exist again."

This is why brain-based coaching helps individuals enter into a solutions-focused positive brain state to solve their own problems and come up with their own answers — what's right for me, may not be right for you.

The brain hardwires everything it can

New ideas or behaviours use the brain's "working memory" which is a very limited resource. Because of this, the brain prefers to hardwire as much as it can — that is, move it from conscious to unconscious structures. This is a very energy efficient process but unfortunately means that much of the time we tend to operate on autopilot. Brain-based coaching involves getting us out of autopilot and into a more conscious thought process which takes significant effort. The structured approach enables coachees to focus on their thinking and not on the coaching process.

Hardwiring drives automatic perception

Moving to more conscious thought is important if we are to overcome old habits that are no longer useful to us or that do not serve us. To quote Eagleman again: "You don't perceive objects as they are. You perceive them as you are". If we want to change our perception, we need to rewire our brains.

It's practically impossible to deconstruct our wiring

Attention itself creates change in the brain. It's useful to remember Hebb's Law (1949): "Cells that fire together wire together". This means that trying to get rid of circuits by focusing on them is often ineffective — we end up further hardwiring them instead. This is why brain-based coaching is solutions focused.

It's easy to create new wiring

Because the world around us is constantly changing, so are we. Neuroplasticity once thought to only apply to children has been proven to apply across our lives, from birth to death. Because attention changes the brain, we can create new connections through what we pay attention to, what we focus on and what we practice — no matter how old we are. The quality and quantity of our attention is therefore key.

The NeuroLeadership Institute is a leading global research organisation and the pioneer of bringing neuroscience to leadership.


All Results Coaching Systems materials are used under licence and remain © NeuroLeadership Institute

Principles of Results Coaching

Self-directed learning

Solutions focus

Positive Feedback



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